Want to earn what you are worth? Learn to negotiate

Now that I mentor younger female engineers and students, I think about what I would have done differently if I had known then what I know now. One piece of advice I wish I’d had when I was starting out is to negotiate your salary.  When I went after my first job it never really dawned on me to do so.  I, like most women, was just excited to get an offer.  Later in my career I read “Women Don’t Ask” by  Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever and learned that most men negotiate their salary from their very first job offer.  However, most women do not. Now I cringe when I think about how much money I probably left on the bargaining table back then.

Studies show that women typically get paid less than men.  This is likely caused by a number of factors, but the fact that women don’t step up to push for what they deserve surely contributes to the problem.  Many feel that if they do a good job, they will be rewarded.  I can tell you from my experience that you have to actively campaign to show your worth and get the rewards you deserve.  Your boss does not get paid to be your advocate.

From the financial side, it is well worth the effort to negotiate your salary.  Money-savvy blogger Ramit Sethi from I Will Teach You to Be Rich points out how much financial bang for the buck you get from negotiating your salary just one time.  Rather than wasting time following the “latte factor” advice of denying yourself  every day to save a few dollars, one salary negotiation early in your career could boost your income thousands of dollars a year.  In “Women Don’t Ask”, the authors provide an example of how a $5k difference in salary at age 22 can add up to over $350k in missed earnings by age 60. 1

So once you are convinced that you should negotiate your salary, how do you do it?  This is where you absolutely need to do your homework ahead of time.

  • Find out the market rate for your position – You can check websites like salary.com, salaryexpert.com, or check with local trade groups (for example, the IEEE collects salary statistics for electrical engineering positions).  Bring this information to your negotiation to back up your claims
  • Be prepared to tell why you deserve the salary – If you are asking for a raise, point out what successes you recently had that justify your increase.  Don’t tell your employer that you need the money for some personal reason (to pay off a college debt) – they don’t care about that.  They need to see your value to the company
  • Know your “BATNA” (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) – What happens if you don’t come to an agreement?  Do you have another job offer in the wings or a recruiter interested in working with you?  Having other options can give you a point of strength in salary negotiations, especially if you are negotiating for a new job.
  • Know the company’s BATNA – What does the company lose if you don’t come to an agreement?  Can they easily find someone else with the right skills?  If your skill set is difficult to find, you have an upper hand at the negotiating table.
  • Decide on your numbers - Have an exact figure for the your desired salary and also the minimum you will accept before you approach the bargaining table.  Having these determined ahead of time will keep you from making a split-second decision you will regret.  You also want to have the number in mind for where you want to start the negotiations (this should be higher than your goal) so you have room to negotiate when the other side counters.

Negotiating can be difficult, even when you believe you have the advantage.  Women often find their confidence crumbling after they get to the bargaining table.  To best prepare, practice with a friend first or, better yet, attend a workshop on the subject.  If you want to learn more about women and negotiation, check out the following books:

Whether you are just starting out or are in the middle of your career, you need to be your own advocate.  No one is going to look out for your interests better than you!

1 Babcock, L. & Laschever, S. (2008).  Ask For It: How Women Can Use the Power of Negotiation to Get What They Really Want. New York, New York: Bantam.

NCWIT Award in Computing – now accepting applications from high school girls

The National Center for Women & Information Technology (NCWIT) has started accepting applications for its annual “Aspirations in Computing” award.  This is a great opportunity for  high school aged girls who have done computing projects or activities to apply for an award.  The national winners will receive $500, a laptop, and a trip to attend the Bank of America Technology Showcase and awards ceremony in Charlotte, NC.

Please pass the word along and encourage any female high schoolers you know to consider applying if they are interested in computing. The deadline for entries is October 31, 2012.

For more information, see the NCWIT website.

NY Times editorial suggests eliminating algebra requirement?

My husband recently caught a few minutes of a Diane Rehm show episode where they discussed a NY Times editorial that suggests we should rethink requiring high school students to master algebra in order to graduate.  My husband convinced me to listen to a podcast of the show during a long car ride, even though I told him that we would probably be yelling at the car stereo for most of the trip.  We did listen and found the discussion interesting and frustrating.

My first response to the idea of eliminating the algebra requirement was: “Well, I wasn’t crazy about English Lit and didn’t find it all that useful in my later life or career – why not eliminate that as well?”.  I never quite understood why schools required 4 years of English courses and not 4 years of math courses, but my point here isn’t really to knock English classes.  It’s just that not every class required in high school is going to be directly used by every student later in life.  That doesn’t mean that it doesn’t have its merits.

OK, I admit that I have always done well in math and that not all students are so lucky.  But is the difficulty a problem with the students or the way they are taught?  I’ve known many coworkers from other countries and most see Americans’ attitude about “math is hard, so it’s okay that you can’t do it” to be, well, mostly an American attitude.  Math may be difficult for some students, but it is worth mastering.  I am not an educator, but I wonder if we investigated why students in other countries perform better on math tests we might find some clues to our own problems with the subject.

According to Ed Nolan on the Diane Rehm show podcast, one problem could be the way that math is taught.  Many of us (myself included) were taught math by rules instead of getting the students to understand the underlying concepts.  It is so easy to mix up the rules and often they don’t help when you hit a problem that doesn’t nicely fit the rule (like the dreaded word problem!).  Why are students taught that they have to use a very specific recipe for every problem instead of relying on critical thinking skills to come up with the answers?  I can recall being denied credit on math assignments in high school because I did not use the exact method the teacher wanted, even though my reasoning was sound and the answer was correct.  Then when I hit college I was surprised when I was expected to use critical thinking skills to work my own way through problems and theorems.  Creativity was valuable! The same methods and skills that I had been discouraged from using in high school turned out to be the very ones that were critical for success in college and my career.  The most difficult and important problems almost always require the “out-of-the-box” thinking that employers covet and high school math teachers frown upon.

One problem I see with allowing students to skip algebra is that this will prevent them from learning any higher math, which can be a problem if a student later decides he needs that knowledge.  Math and science courses differ from others like English and history in that the knowledge has to be built up in a series of steps.  You cannot succeed in higher level math classes like trigonometry and calculus without first mastering algebra.  So, maybe not everyone is going to be an engineer, scientist or mathematician; that doesn’t mean that they don’t need math.  I would argue that many other types of jobs require math.  How else can a painter figure out how much paint he is going to need to complete a room?  Besides, do students in the 8th, 9th, or 10th grade even know for certain what kind of career they want to pursue?  I doubt it.  I didn’t know what I was going to major in when I entered college, let alone in the 10th grade.  I am grateful that I took all the required math classes in high school so I was ready when I switched majors to engineering.  I would hate to see students finding their potential career choices limited because they were allowed to skip foundation classes in high school.

I also believe that everyone just needs a basic understanding of mathematics as they make their way through life.  I am constantly surprised at how deficient many people are in math.  Years ago when I worked at a local department store, we regularly had sales where credit card customers could get the sale discount and then another 10% off.  I can’t tell you how many times I’ve argued with customers that getting 40% off and then 10% off is not 50% off!  I personally use math all the time when I am at the grocery store.  I have discovered it is not uncommon for 18 eggs to be more expensive per egg than 12 eggs.  I also worry about the number of people who honestly don’t understand compound interest.  They don’t realize how much that meal they put on their credit card is really going to cost them in the long run or why saving for retirement at 20 requires so much less money that if you start at 35.  Although I’m not going to claim to understand everything about mortgages, at least I can calculate whether the monthly payment the bank is quoting me is accurate.   I also know how to critically analyze statistics so I can spot when someone is quoting carefully chosen numbers so that the conclusion drawn matches their agenda.  And don’t even get me started about logic problems.  I get so tired of people claiming that because two events seem to always happen at the same time that one has to be the cause of the other.  These are the critical thinking skills we need in order to analyze, question and understand the world around us.  Missing out on these skills leaves one’s education incomplete.

I’m not against having a discussion about the problems some students have learning algebra.  I think it is time we really talk about why we our students are so far behind the rest of the world in math and science.  I don’t have the answers, but I don’t think giving up trying to teach the concepts is the answer either.

Engineering Career Path Options

Wireless Test Bed – Idaho National Laboratory

Although many engineers work research or design fields, this is not true for everyone.  Types of engineering positions vary and an engineering degree can even lead to a completely different field.  Engineering can open many doors of opportunity, so don’t think that you will end up boxed into a cubicle designing widgets if that’s not what you want to do.  Here are some insights on the types of careers that may be possible:

Research & Development:  Do you like the theoretical work or want to be an inventor?  Engineers in research and development (R&D) work at the cutting edge of their field.  They develop new ideas and technologies that in some cases may not be used in commercial applications for many years.  Their work can be theoretical in nature and is often conducted in laboratories where new ideas can be investigated and tested.  Many engineering positions in R&D require graduate-level degrees since masters and doctorate students get more research experience.  R&D careers include tenure-track professors who perform research at universities and investigators at large laboratories (think National Labs like Los Alamos, Fermi, Brookhaven, Argonne, etc).  Many large corporations also have R&D departments (like AT&T/Bell Labs) where they investigate promising technologies to eventually develop into new products with a competitive edge.

Design: Do you like building and designing new things?  Maybe you really like the “hands-on” experiences in your engineering labs?  Then a career in Design may appeal to you.  While R&D engineers develop new technologies (e.g., developing battery technology for an electric car), design engineers design a specific product (e.g., designing the Chevy Volt).  Design engineers design everything from bridges to software apps to manufacturing equipment to better snowboards.  These jobs are the ones that most people think when they think of engineering jobs.  This type of work is all about practical applications of engineering and making new, usable devices and products.  Design engineers can be found at large corporations, small businesses, and engineering firms.

Field Engineering: Are you someone who likes “hands-on” practical work?  Do you enjoy troubleshooting (doing detective work to track down a problem) and doing work away from a regular office cubicle?  If so, field engineering might be a good fit.  Field engineers often work at customer sites to install products, maintain equipment and troubleshoot issues.  Depending on the position, this could provide opportunities for travel as well.  These types of engineers are commonly employed by large corporations who make equipment or products used by other companies.

Quality: Are you a numbers person?  Do you like to investigate and improve things?  Then a job as a quality engineer may interest you. Quality engineers monitor design and manufacturing processes to ensure that the final product works reliably.  They will often use statistical techniques to watch manufacturing yield rates and field return rates and may help track down root causes for failures.  These type of engineers are most commonly employed by large corporations.

Business and Management: Do you like engineering but are more of a “people-person” and really want to be in a leadership role?  Then a business or management career may be for you.  Many corporations have two different tracks for the engineering career ladder: technical or managerial.  Those who enjoy the hands-on aspects or technical challenges of day-to-day engineering choose to stay in the technical track and may eventually culminate their career as Subject Matter Experts (SMEs).  However, those who prefer to exercise their people and organizational skills may choose the managerial track.  These careers include not just management of an engineering group, but also include project management and corporate leadership positions.  Unlike engineering managers who manage a staff of engineers, project managers are in charge of specific projects.  Their role is to ensure all the pieces of the project are completed on time and that any unexpected issues are resolved.  They coordinate activities between the different team members.  Some project managers pursue professional certification such as Professional Project Management (PMP) as part of their career development.  Managers who wish to advance to high-level positions within their company may pursue an MBA degree to enhance their business knowledge.  Engineers with outstanding leadership skills are often sought after for executive leadership positions at high-tech corporations because they can understand the technical aspects of their business.  Engineers can be found in the CIO, CTO and CEO positions of many corporations.

Medicine, Law and Others:  Many friends of mine used their engineering degree as a springboard to pursue other professional careers.  About 50% of the students in my undergraduate biomedical engineering class went on to medical school after finishing their bachelor’s degree.  Several of my friends went on to law school and used their engineering degrees as a technical foundation for patent law.  Having a technical background can be a benefit in these other career fields.  For example, doctors who understand the latest technological advancements can push for new medical technologies that will improve their patients’ treatment plans and outcomes.

Entrepreneurs: Are you a motivated, independent worker who prefers to work on your own projects rather than what the company dictates?  Then perhaps owning your own business would appeal to you.  Some engineers decide that working for someone else just isn’t for them and chart a course on their own.  I have several friends who left large corporations to start electronics, software or consulting businesses.  Most of these were bright, creative, people-oriented engineers who discovered that being an entrepreneur fit them perfectly.

This is by no means an exhaustive list of all the possible career choices for engineers, but can be used as a starting point.  It’s great to know that there are a variety of roles to choose from depending on what aspects of engineering you find exciting.  Additionally, if you decide not to pursue an engineering position , your degree is not a dead end but can lead you to careers in other fields, too.

Engineers Making a Difference

When high school girls are asked what they want from a career, one popular response is that they want to be able to make a difference in the world. They want to make a positive impact and help people. Unfortunately, many people don’t necessarily link that goal with engineering and that is a shame.

I know that engineers are out there making a difference.  Last fall I read an article from the LA Times about biomedical engineer Edward Damiano who is working on a new device to help Type 1 diabetics. For him, the project is personal since his son has the disease.

Unlike Type 2 diabetes which can be caused by the body’s inability to use its insulin and is often linked to obesity, Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly kills off the cells that produce insulin. Without insulin, sugar in the blood cannot be processed and used as fuel. When this occurs, sugar builds up the in the blood and life-threatening complications can occur.

Currently there is no cure for Type 1 diabetes, although researchers are still searching.  For now, patients must manage the disease by monitoring their blood sugar and injecting insulin several times a day.  Some patients must still rely on shots, but others are lucky enough to benefit from newer technology that has replaced insulin shots with a continuous insulin pump. Blood sugar levels in the tissues can now be detected using a continuous glucose monitor.

Managing Type 1 diabetes is tricky.  If the blood sugar goes too high, it can cause complications and contribute to long-term damage to the nervous system, eyes and kidneys.  If too much insulin is applied and the blood sugar goes too low, a patient can go into convulsions, lose consciousness and go into a potential deadly coma, as the character Shelby did in the movie Steel Magnolias .  Unfortunately, the disease is nicknamed “Juvenile Diabetes” because it is usually diagnosed when patients are children or young adults.

The device Edward Damiano is working on manages the blood sugar by mimicking the pancreas. It senses the sugar level in the blood and releases glucagon or insulin to raise or lower blood sugar as needed. The specific piece that Damiano is developing is the software control algorithm. He is using techniques from a field called Control Theory, also commonly used in robotics.

When I read his story of jumping into this project to help treat his own son’s disease, it hit a chord with me. This could really make a difference in not only his son’t life, but others as well. My nephew was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at age 3. I hated hearing about how he was getting shots several times a day. My sister told me that anytime he gets sick enough to vomit, she has to take him to the emergency room because it can throw his blood sugar into a dangerous state. When he was little she couldn’t leave him with a regular baby sitter since few are qualified to manage his diabetes. And they have to vigilantly count the carbs he eats to ensure he gets the right dose of insulin.

Since I have a background in biomedical engineering, this story had me thinking about jumping out of the telecommuncations industry and finding a job on one of these diabetes projects (there are other groups doing similar work). And I might have done that if I didn’t have personal commitments preventing me from up and moving. There is just something about working on a project like that which really motivates me. The satisfaction from helping others makes me proud to be an engineer.

To learn more about Type 1 diabetes and the current research efforts, check out the JDRF website .

To try your hand at managing diabetes, check out the Diabetic Dog Game.

A Day in the Work Life of an Electrical Engineer

When you think of what an engineer does on a daily basis, what comes to mind?  Do you think we sit around and solve math problems all day?  Maybe you think we sit in a cube and work on our projects alone.

Well, I have to confess that I don’t perform calculations all day.  I’m sure that there are some engineers who spend time “doing the math”, but most of the calculations I do are either relatively simple or I rely on software to do it for me.

So, what is life as an engineer like?  What do I do in a typical day?  Considering that engineers aren’t typically known for their communication skills, I spend a considerable amount of time communicating via emails, in meetings and on conference calls.  Oftentimes, I am communicating with colleagues around the world.  (It gets really interesting when you have an engineer in Mexico explaining an issue to an engineer in China speaking all in English when neither of them is a native English-speaker!  I am amazed that they can understand each other, but they manage.)

The engineering work I do includes design, implementation and testing of my part of a given project.  I design both hardware (electronics – think circuit boards) and software for each project.  I review the requirements of the project (what does this need to do?) and come up with a solution.  Many of our projects are related so it is common for me to re-use pieces from old designs and then create new pieces to fulfill the new requirements.  This part of the project requires me to spend time in my office thinking, planning and drawing up my ideas.  If I hit a roadblock, it is common practice for me to go talk to other engineers in my group to see if they can offer some suggestions.  Although we work individually on projects, we often discuss our work with each other and share ideas. (We have a shared lab space and end up talking to each other quite a bit)  Around our office if someone tries out a new concept that works really well, they will be enthusiastically showing it off in the lab.

One of the great things about working with electronics is that I generally get to “play” with my design in the lab and tweak it.  You can’t really do that if you design roadways for a living.  So, when I design a circuit board, someone (a technician or factory) will build the board and send it to me.  Then the fun of troubleshooting starts.  The board gets plugged in and tested.  Then, if something doesn’t work as expected, I get to play detective and try to figure out what is going on.  Although it can be tricky to troubleshoot when the design isn’t working, I usually learn a lot from the effort. Troubleshooting sometimes requires me to be clever and creative to get to the root of the problem.

Once my design works for me and I send it out for it’s intended use, I still have to support it.  This usually results in my trying to troubleshoot problems with it remotely.  This can be challenging and frustrating, but if you can fix a problem that is happening at a factory on the other side of the world you feel like you can fix anything!

Most of my work takes place in my office or lab, with the occasional trip to a factory.  Other types of engineers do their work in other places – factories, oil fields, electrical substations, nuclear plants, to name a few.  Most of us spend at least some time in an office working in front of a computer.  To read a little bit about other engineering fields, you can check out the  Engineer Your Life website.

Don’t be afraid to fail

Not long ago I met a female high school student who was very interested in pursuing a career in engineering (I swear her eyes sparkled with excitement when she talked about it), but she was afraid of what could happen if she made a mistake as an engineer.

Ah, if we could just all be perfect… wouldn’t that be nice?  But we’re not.  We’re human.  And we make mistakes sometimes.  That is why engineering organizations build checks and balances into their processes.  Work that is safety-related is checked by other engineers.  Detailed failure analyses are performed.  Critical systems are designed  with redundancy to avoid single point failures.

This student’s concern strikes an ever deeper cord with me, however.  I know what she’s thinking and where she’s headed.  When I first started working as an engineer, I worried about every little mistake.  I was convinced that if I were a competent engineer, then everything I designed and built should work correctly the first time.

I am here to tell you that it doesn’t work that way.  It has taken me years to understand that being an engineer is all about learning and building upon our experiences.  Sometimes we make mistakes.  And sometimes our designs don’t work because of something completely unexpected.  So what happens when something doesn’t work?  We have to investigate, to troubleshoot, to find the root cause.  And what is the end result of this?  We learn something new.  We create an even better design next time.  Some of my best days in the lab started when something didn’t work as planned.  There have been times where I’ve had to dig into the project to a level that forces me to gain a true understanding of how things work.  If I didn’t figure it out myself, my coworkers were always willing to jump in to take a look.  There is nothing like an elusive problem to draw a crowd of engineers, all with their own suggestions for how to uncover the answer!

I have learned far more from my mistakes than I ever learned from my successes.

Don’t be afraid to fail.  Otherwise you will never take the risks required to create something truly extraordinary.

“I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.”   – Thomas Edison

15-year-old student wins Intel award for developing inexpensive and accurate cancer detection test

Over the weekend I heard a story about a 15-year-old who won the Intel Science Fair competition for developing a test to detect pancreatic cancer.  The test is inexpensive and remarkably accurate.  The fact that this boy beat researchers in creating this test is truly amazing.  I was awed and inspired reading the story.  His brother has also won an impressive award in science.  It will be interesting to follow him while he attends college and beyond.

The story explains how even as a young child he was curious about the world around him and tested out how things worked.  This type of exploration and curiosity is a trait of many of the best scientists and engineers I know.  They want to know how things work and find ways to create better designs.

This is not to say that you have to be a genius to be an engineer.  You need to be curious and interested in solving problems.  This boy’s story should be inspiration as to what is possible.  Also, don’t think that a child cannot be a scientist or engineer if they haven’t solved some big problem by age 15.  I never competed in a science fair in middle or high school.  Unfortunately, my school never participated in such events.  However if a student does have an opportunity to be involved in science fairs or engineering competitions, they should take advantage of it.  These events help get students interested in science and engineering.  It helps them understand what kind of work these careers entail and whether or not it might be of interest to them.

The real major roadblock to pursuing a STEM field that I worry about is that if a student decides late in their high school years that they want to pursue such a field, they may not have taken the classes they will need.  When I was in school the graduation requirements for science and math were very skimpy: 2 years of science, 3 years of math.   Students need to complete 4 years of math and take high school chemistry and physics to really be prepared for a technical curriculum in college.  Otherwise students may have to take remedial classes (hint: extra classes = extra time & cost) before they can enter an engineering program.   If a student has even a remote interest in STEM, they should check out college entrance requirements while they are still a high school freshman so they can be sure to fulfill them.  Otherwise they may  lose opportunities down the road.